ADDIE

Analyze

The ADDIE Model – Analyze

Analyze is the first phase of ADDIE ISD model. However, as with all phases of ADDIE, analysis can be done anywhere in the process. In the analysis phase an instructional developer must identify needs, objectives, content and analyze the audience by asking several questions.

What Happens During ISD???. This document from the book, “Training Needs Assessment,” by Allison Rossett (1987) provides clarification of ADDIE and explains what happens during ISD.
Instructional Design: Front-End Analysis. This page is maintained by University of Colorado at Denver , School of Education and provides link to resources on many facets of front end analysis.
Site Definition and Planning. Yale Web Style Guide maintains a very nice article and list of resources to the first phase of development.
Instructional/Audience Analysis. Florida Gulf Coast University’s Principles of Online Design is indented as a resource for faculty who are designing online instructional materials. This page provides principles, practices and examples for audience analysis.
Assessment. A list of methods, tools and resources to assessing your audience.
Conducting a Needs Assessment. This page has a really good description of conducting a needs assessment and links to useful worksheets to use when conducting your needs assessment.
Reference Guide for Instructional Design and Development. This document was developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.(IEEE). This document serves as a valuable reference for

Design

The ADDIE Model – Design

Design is the second phase of ADDIE ISD model. In the design phase, developers need to get specific about the different elements of the project or instruction. In this phase developers ask questions like:

Site Design. Yale Web Style Guide maintains a very nice article and list of resources to site design.
Instructional System Design – Design Phase. This page is maintained by Donal Clark. It provides a really nice outline about the design phase of instructional design.

What skills exactly should the audience have? Once the analysis is complete the goals of the instruction should become apparent through the objectives. Objectives are a very important part of instruction. The objectives should be short, specific and testable.

Objectives. This page has a really good description of classifying and writing objectives and links to useful worksheets to use when designing objectives.
How to Write a Goal. This page provided by Texas A&M College Station, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences provides guidelines to help make goal writing easier.
Goals and Objectives. The University of Texas at Austin provides information, examples, exercises and links to additional resources for writing effective and meaningful goals and objectives.
Writing Educational Goals and Objectives. Pennsylvania State University provides an intuitive page of guidance, checklists and examples for writing goals and objectives.

What media, resources and materials will this project involve?Objectives will determine the instruction content. In this phase of ISD the developer will create an outline of the instruction or project. The outline will provide the tasks, strategies and sequencing of the project or instruction.

Decide How You Will Communicate Performance Expectations to Students, Parents, and Others Who Are Interested. How will you convey the expected lesson outcomes. This page provides a guide for this decision in the process.

Now is a good time to begin to think about practice, feedback and assessment. These activities are important aspects to effective instruction and should involve thorough consideration. The developer should indicate the type of practice, feedback and assessment the project will require.

Choose a Set of Content Standards and Develop Your Performance Descriptions and Expectations. A guide to help you decide what type of standards to apply.
Assessment, Assessment Rubrics and Evaluation Guidelines. A very useful page listing assessment tools for varied assessment types.

Development

The ADDIE Model – Development

Development is the third phase of ADDIE ISD model. However, as with all phases of ADDIE, the development phase can be done anywhere in the process. In the development phase, developers make the decisions of “how” to do the project. In this phase the developer is not asking questions anymore they are answering them.

Instructional Activities. This page is developed and maintained by the Florida Gulf Coast University. It provides priciples, practices and examples for applying the various activities to make online instruction meaningful.
Introduction to Development. This document is actually a chapter from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy’s course designer course. This chapter discusses the development phase.
ADDIE – Develop. This site is developed and maintained by Idaho State University and provides an excellent overview of ADDIE. This page is about the activities that go on during the development phase.
Instructional System Design – Development Phase. This page provides a good outline and links to additional resources about the development phase of instructional design.

Specify step-by-step plan of action of the proposed project and how learning will take place. In the design phase the developer created an outline that identified the tasks, strategies and sequencing of the project or instruction. In the development phase this outline will turn into specific step-by-step details.

Nine Events of Instruction and Their Relation to Processes of Learning. This document relates each of the nine instructional events to a learning process.
Develop, adapt, or adopt assessments that are aligned with and reflect the performance descriptions and expectations. Information and resources to help deveolp assessment and feedback in instruction.
Sequencing Instruction. This document describes a variety of sequencing models.
Instructional Strategies. This page provides useful information and resources about how to choose an instructional strategy.

Implementation

The ADDIE Model – Implementation

Implementation is the fourth phase of ADDIE ISD model. However, as with all phases of ADDIE, implementation can be done anywhere in the process. This is he phase where everything comes together and the intended audience receives the project or instruction. Planning for implementation is important. After all the analysis, design and development the team has done so far it would be terrible if the instruction or project fails due to poor implementation.

Implementation. This page is provided by Idaho State University. It provides an overview of the Implementation phase of ADDIE.
E is for e-Learning Implementation. A free tool to make school, activity and class calendars and to allow educators and their students to communicate and interact online.

Prepare Learner Environment. Ensure the workstations have the appropriate access to the newly developed instruction or project and that users are provided with logins and passwords to gain access if necessary. Check that there are enough materials or handouts and that the “easily overlooked” issues are resolved, like enough seating, comfortable temperature, proper lighting and etc. Last but not least ensure there is plenty of technical support!

Prepeare Learner Environment. This page provides a these suggestions when trying to provide an optimal learning environment.
Sample Implementation Plan. This provides a sample implementation plan outline. Plan the instructional message and delivery.
Universal Instructional Design Implementation Guide. Universal in this context means adapting physical spaces and objects to consider the needs of people with disabilities and make them more accessible and useful for all people. This document provides a comprehensive guide to developing a diverse classroom setting.
Preparing Instructors for Quality Online Instruction. This article discusses ensuring effective online instruction by discussing the new paradigm that instructors face with online instruction.
Assign-A-Day. A free tool to make school, activity and class calendars and to allow educators and their students to communicate and interact online.

Evaluation

The ADDIE Model – Evaluation

Evaluation is technically the fifth and last phase of ADDIE ISD model. However, evaluation is actually an ongoing activity that is conducted throughout all the phases. In the analysis phase evaluation was to determine if there was a problem or there is an existing solution. In the design phase, the objectives are evaluated to determine the type of project or instruction.

The project is routinely evaluated by the developers and testers to ensure it is meeting the requirements.

What Have We Learned? This is a good PowerPoint presentation that is 23 slides and provides useful information and resources about assessments.
Evaluating Workshops and Institutes. An overview of evaluation and why we need evaluation.
Instructional System Development – Evaluation Phase. A more comprehensive overview of the evaluation phase of ISD.
Kirpatrick’s Four Levels of Evaluation. This page developed by San Diego State Univeersity describes the four-level model for assessing training affectiveness.
Kinds of Data. This document provides a brief overview of data types and definitions.

Did the instruction work?Evaluation consists of two types, formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is part of each proceeding phase and determines effectiveness and quality of each stage. Summative evaluation consists of tests for criterion-related referenced items. In addition, summartive evaluation provides opportunity for feedback from the users and assesses learner outcomes. Summative evaluation is the type of evaluation performed in this phase of ADDIE.

Use the Results to Improve Student Performance and/or Instruction. Information and guidance to determine if the students were able to master the objectives.
Formative v.s. Summative Evaluation. This page provides a simple matrix detailing the difference in these to evaluations.
Formative and Summative Evaluation. This page is developed and maintained by the University of Texas at ElPaso and contains a lot of useful information about evaluation and teaching effectiveness.
Evaluate Your Teaching. This page provides information and resources about formative evaluation.

Was the project effective for the audience or how can the instruction be further improved?Complete analysis provides feedback. Evaluation may measure knowledge transfer, learner outcomes, cost factors, and learner attitude.

Measuring Success: Evaluation Strategies for Distance Learning. This article discussess the difficulties in measuring effectiveness of online course and strategies that can be used.
Evaluation Cookbook. This page provides a lot of information and “recipes” for evaluation.
Evaluation Tools. This page provided by Georgia Tech lists a variety of tools that can be used to evaluate your data.