Online Education Best Practice Reference List

Articles & Books

Abel, R. (2005). Implementing best practices in online learning. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 28(3), 75-77.

Abrami, P. C., Bernard, R. M., Wade, A., Schmid, R. F., Borokhovski, E., Tamim, R., et al. (2006). A

review of e-learning in Canada: A rough sketch of the evidence, gaps and promising directions.

Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 32, 3.

Advantogy. (2003). Memletics Accelerated Learning Styles Inventory. Grayslake, IL: Advantogy.

Ainsworth, S. (1999). The functions of multiple representations. Computers & Education, 33(2/3), 131-152.

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2006). Making the grade: Online education in the United States, 2006. Neeham and Wellesley, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved from

Allen, M., Witt, P. L., & Wheeless, L. P. (2006). The role of teacher immediacy as a motivational factor in student learning: Using meta-analysis to test a causal model. Communication Education, 55(1), 21-31.

Ally, M. (2000). Tutoring skills for distance education. Open Praxis: The Bulletin of the International Council

for Open and Distance Education, Vol. 1, 31 34.

Ally, M. (2004). Foundations of educational theory for online learning. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds.),

Theory and practice of online learning (pp. 3 31). Athabasca, Alberta, Canada: Athabasca University.

Ally, M. (2004b). Designing effective learning objects for distance education. In R. McGreal (Ed.), Online

education using learning objects (pp. 87 97). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Anderson, C. (2004, October). The long tail. Wired Magazine (12.10). Retrieved from

Anderson, H. M., Cain, J., & Bird, E. (2005). Online student course evaluations: Review of literature and a pilot Study. Am J Pharm Educ, 69(1), article 5. Retrieved from

Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A

revision of Bloom s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York, NY: Longman.

Anderson, T. (Ed.). (2008). The theory and practice of online learning (2nd ed.). Athabasca, AB, Canada: Athabasca University. AU Press. Available online:

Anderson, T. & Elloumi, F. (Eds.). (2004). Theory and practice of online learning. Athabasca, AB, Canada: Athabasca University. AU Press. Available online:

Armstrong, D., Denton, J. & Savage, T. (1978). Instructional skills handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational

Technology Publications.

Banaszewski, T. (2002). Digital storytelling finds its place in the classroom. Retrieved from

Bastiaens, T. & Martens, R. (2000). Conditions for web-based learning with real events. In Abbey, B. (Ed.), Instructionaland cognitive impacts of web-based education (pp. 1 31). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.

Bates, A. (2000), Managing technological change: Strategies for college and university leaders. San Francisco:


Bates, A. (2001). National strategies for e-learning in post-secondary education and training. UNESCO:

International Institute for Educational Planning. Paris: United Nations.

Bates, A. W. & Poole, G. (2003). Effective teaching with technology in higher education: Foundations for success.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Beach, B. K. (1993, October). Learning with Roger Schank. Training & Development, 47(10), 39 42.

Benbunan-Fich, R., & Hiltz, S. R. (1999). Educational applications of CMCS: Solving case studies through asynchronous learning networks. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 4(3). Retrieved from

Bentley, J. (2001). Accounting for individual differences in learning: Where do we start and what are the implications for online instruction? Presented at the AECT 2001 Conference, Atlanta. Retrieved from

Berge, Z. 1995. The role of the online instructor/facilitator. Educational Technology 35 (1): 22-30.

Bloom, B., Engelhart, M., Hill, W., Furst, E. & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives,

Handbook 1: The cognitive domain. New York, NY: David McKay Inc.

Bhattacharya, M. (2006). Introducing Integrated EPortfolio across courses in a postgraduate program

in distance and online education. In R.C. Sharma & S. Sharma (Eds.). Cases on Global E-learning Practices:

Successes and Pitfalls. Chapter 7. Hershey, PA: Idea Group.

Bhattacharya, M. (2007). Theories of elearning. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of World Conference on

E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2007 (pp. 2363 2364). Chesapeake,


Bhattacharya, M. & Jorgensen, L. (2006). Defining dimensions of diversity. In G. Trajkovski (Ed.), Diversity

in information technology education: Issues and controversies (pp. 1 14). Hershey, PA: Idea Group.

Billings, D. M., Skiba, D. J., & Connors, H. R. (2005). Best practices in Web-based courses: Generational differences across undergraduate and graduate nursing students. J Prof Nurs, 21, 126-133.

Bischoff, A. (2000). The elements of effective online teaching: Overcoming the barriers to success. In K. White & B. Weight (Eds.) The online teaching guide: A handbookof attitudes, strategies, and techniques for the virtualclassroom. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Boettcher, J. V. (2006). Ten core principles for designing learning—The jungle brain meets the tundra brain. Expanded version of Boettcher, J. V. (2003). Course management systems and learning principles——Getting to know each other. Syllabus, 16, 33-36. version is at

Boettcher, J. V., & Conrad, R. M. (2004). Faculty guide for moving teaching and learning to the web. (2nd ed.). (pp. 247). Phoenix, AZ: League for Innovation.

Brown, A. (1997). Designing for learning: What are the essential features of an effective online course? Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 13(2), 115-126. Retrieved from

Brown, A. H., & Green, T. (2009). Time students spend reading threaded discussions in online graduate courses requiring asynchronous participation. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(6), 51-54. Athabasca, AB, Canada: Athabasca University.

Brown, G., Myers, C. B. & Roy, S. (2003). Formal course design and the student learning experience. Journal ofAsynchronous Learning Networks, 7(3), 66 76.

Canas, A., Leake, D., & Wilson, D. (1999). Managing, mapping, and manipulating conceptual knowledge.

Institute for Human and Machine Cognition. Exploring synergies of knowledge management and casebased

reasoning. (pp. 10 113).Tech. Report WS-99-10, Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.

Caplan, D. (2004). The development of online courses. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds.), Theory and practice of online learning. Athabasca, AB, Canada: Athabasca University. Retrieved from

Carlson, R., & Repman, J. (2000). Building that human touch into your Web-based course. WebNet Journal

2(3), 9-11.

Charron, C., Favier, J., & Li, C. (2006, February 13). Social computing: How networks erode institutional power,

and what to do about it. Forrester Research. Retrieved from,7211,38772,00.html

Chester, A., & Gwynne, G. (1998). Online teaching: Encouraging collaboration through anonymity. Journal of

Computer-Mediated Communication, 4(2). Retrieved from


Chickering, A., & Ehrmann, S. C. (1996). Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as lever.
AAHE Bulletin, October, 3-6. Retrieved from

Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. American Association of Higher Education Bulletin, 39(7), 3-7. Retrieved from

Churach, D., & Fisher, D. (2001). Science students surf the web: Effects on constructivist classroom environments. Journal of Computers in Mathematics andScience Teaching, 20(2), 221 247.

Church, A. T. (2000). Culture and Personality: Toward an Integrated Cultural Trait Psychology. Journal of

Personality, 68(4), 651 703.

Church, A. T., & Lonner, W. J. (1998). The cross-cultural perspective in the study of personality: rationale and

current research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29(1), 32 62.

Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2003). E-learning and the science of instruction. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Cohen, M., & Riel, M. (1989). The Effect of Distant Audiences on Students Writing, AERA Journal,

pp. 132 159.

Cogburn, D. L. (1998). Globalisation, knowledge, education, and training in the information age. International

Forum on Information and Documentation, 23(4), 23 29.

Collison, G., Elbaum, B., Haavind, S., & Tinker, R. (2000). Facilitating online learning: Effective strategies

for moderators. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing.

Colon, B., Taylor, K., & Willis, J. (2000). Constructivist instructional design: Creating a multimedia package

for teaching critical qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 5(1 & 2). Retrieved from

Colwell, B. (2002). Near misses: Murphy s law is wrong. Computer, 35(4), 9 12.

Conrad, D. (2004). University instructors reflections on their first online teaching experiences. Journal of

Asynchronous Learning Networks, 8(2), 31 44.

Conrad, R. M., & Donaldson, J. A. (2004). Engaging the online learner: Activities and resources for creative instruction. (pp. 123). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Cox, T., H. (1993). Cultural diversity in organizations : theory, research, and practice (1st ed.). San Francisco:


Cross, J. (2001). eLearning forum update: Peer-to-peer. Retrieved from

Cross, J. (2005). The intelligent design of learning. Retrieved from

Cross, J. (2006). Jay s Eclectic Interests. Retrieved from

D Andrade, R. G. (1984). Cultural meaning systems. In R. A. Shweder & R. A. LeVine (Eds.), Culture theory:

Essays on mind, self, and emotion (pp. 65 129). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Danielson, J., Lockee, B., & Burton, J. (2000). ID and HCI: A marriage of necessity. In Abbey, B. (Ed.), Instructionaland cognitive impacts of web-based education. (pp. 118 128). Hershey, PA: Idea Group


Davis, G., & Dick, D. M. (2009). Making the switch. Turning face-to-face content into meaningful online courses. Learning & Leading with Technology, February, 18-22.

Dede, C. (2007). Emerging educational technologies and neomillennial learning styles. 2007 ELI Annual

Meeting Podcast, May, 1, 2007. Retrieved from

Dereshiwsky, M. I. (2001). “A” is for assessment: Identifying online assessment practices and perceptions.

Education at a Distance 15 (1). Retrieved from

DeSantis, C. (2002). eLearners Advisor, University of Guelph

Dick, W., & Carey, L. (1990). The systematic design of instruction (3rd ed.). Glenville, IL: Harper Collins


Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey, J.O. (2001). The Systematic Design of Instruction. Addison-Wesley Educational

Publishing Inc., Fifth Edition, New York.

Dillon, S. (2006, October 20). No Test Tubes? Debate on Virtual Science Classes. New York Times. Retrieved


Dimitrova, M., Sadler, C., Hatzipanagos, S., & Murphy, A. (2003, 1 5 Sept). Addressing learner diversity by

promoting flexibility in e-learning environments. Paper presented at the 14th International Workshop on

Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA 03), Prague, Czech Republic.

Downes, S. (2005). E-learning 2.0. eLearn Magazine. Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. Retrieved


Dunlap, J. C. (2009). Down-and-dirty guidelines for effective discussions in online courses. Part 4: Resources. (pp. 93-99). P. R. Lowenthal, D. Thomas, A. Thai, & B. Yuhnke (Eds.). The CU online handbook. Teach differently: Create and collaborate.Denver, CO: University of Colorado Denver. Retrieved from

Dunlap, J. C. (2009). Protocols for online discussions. Part 4: Resources. (pp. 101-105). P. R. Lowenthal, D. Thomas, A. Thai, & B. Yuhnke (Eds.). The CU online handbook. Teach differently: Create and collaborate.

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Enders, F. B., & Diener-West, M. (2006). Methods of learning in statistical education: A randomized trial of Public Health graduate students. Statistics Education Research Journal, 5(1), 5-19. Retrieved from

Erez, M., & Earley, P. C. (1993). Culture, self-identity, and work. New York: Oxford University Press.

Erlbaum, B., McIntyre, C., & Smith, E. (2002). Essential elements: Prepare, design, and teach your online

courses. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing.

Farrell, G. (2001). Issues and choices. In G. Farrell (Ed.), The changing faces of virtual education (Vol. 2006, pp. 141 152): The Commonwealth of Learning. Retrieved from:

Farrell, G., & Isaacs, S. (2007). Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: A Summary Report, Based

on 53 Country Surveys. Washington, DC: infoDev/World Bank. Retrieved from

Fell, S., & Greek, C. (1997). Internet-based distance education courses in criminology: Prolegomena to

production. Paper presented at the Syllabus97 conference, Sonoma, CA, July.

Fenrich, P. (2005). Creating Instructional Multimedia Solutions: Practical Guidelines for the Real World.

Santa Rosa, CA: Informing Science Press.

Ferdman, B., M. (1995). Cultural identity and diversity in organizations: Bridging the gap between group

differences and individual uniqueness. In M. M. Chemers, S. Oskamp & M. A. Costanzo (Eds.), Diversity

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Ference, P., & Vockell, E. (1994, July-August). Adult learning characteristics and effective software instruction.

Educational Technology, 34(6), 25 31.

Fischer, K. Reiss, D., & Young, A. (2005). Ten tips for generating engaged online discussion. Austin, TX, University of Texas. Retrieved from This provides a helpful set of concise tips that offer ideas and suggestions for being effective at facilitating discussions in electronic environments. More tips on getting started in online active learning are available at

Fleming, N. (2001). VARK a guide to learning styles.

Francis, S., Aistrip, J., & Winsryg, M. (2003). Color is the essence of it all. Santa Monica, CA: Martin Sosin.

Freeman, S., O Connor, E., Parks, J. W., Cunningham, M., Hurley, D., Haak, D., Wenderoth, M. P. (2007). Prescribed active learning increases performance in introductory biology. CBE Life Sciences Education, 6, 132-9.

Fulford, C. P., & Zhang, S. (1993). Perceptions of interaction: The critical predictor in distance education.

American Journal of Distance Education, 7(3), 8-21.

Gagn, R., Briggs, L., & Wager, W. (1988). Principles of instructional design (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Holt,

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Gagn , R.M., Wager, W., & Rojas, A. (1991). Planning and authoring computer-assisted instruction lessons.

In L. Briggs, K.L. Gustafson & M.H. Tillman (Eds.), Instructional Design: Principles and Applications (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, pp. 211 226.

Gagnon, Jr., G., & Cooley, M. (2001). Constructivist learning design.

Gardner, H. (1983, 1993). Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Tenth Anniversary Edition.

New York: Basic Books.

Gardenswartz, L., & Rowe, A. (1998). Managing Diversity: A Complete Desk Reference and Planning Guide.

New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Garland, D., & Martin, B. N. (2005). Do gender and learning style play a role in how online courses should be designed? Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 4(2), 67-81. Retrieved from

Giles, J. (2005, December 14). Internet encyclopaedias go head to head. Nature. Retrieved June 20, 2007,


Goodyear, P. (2002) Psychological foundations for networked learning.” Networked learning: perspectives and issues. (pp. 49-75). Springer-Verlag. New York, Inc.

Graham, C., Cagiltay, K., Lim, B., Craner, J., & Duffy, T. (2001). Seven principles of effective teaching: A practical lens for evaluating online courses. The Technology Source.

Grasha, A.. (2002). Teaching with style: A practical guide to enhancing learning by understanding teaching and learning styles. San Bernadino: Alliance Publishers.

Gray, K., & Tobin, J. (2010). Introducing an online community into a clinical education setting: A pilot study of student and staff engagement and outcomes using blended learning. BMC Medical Education, 10, 6. Retrieved from

Grogan, G. (2005). The Design of Online Discussions to Achieve Good Learning Results. (Accessed August 27, 2007).

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Gulati, S. (2004, April). Constructivism and emerging online learning pedagogy: A discussion for formal to acknowledge and promote the informal. Paper presented at theAnnual Conference of the Universities Association forContinuing Education Regional Futures: Formal andInformal Learning Perspectives, Centre for LifelongLearning, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, UK. Retrieved from

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Adult Education Rapid Instructional Design Tips (

African Virtual University

African Universities Initiative

ARIADNE: (2006). Ask search technology.

Augmented Reality:


Biology Success! Teaching Diverse Learners.

research/biology%5Fsuccess/book.html Biology Success! is an innovative project based at

Landmark College in Putney, VT and funded by the National Science Foundation s Research in Disabilities Education program (HRD No. 0004264). Biology Success! asserts that students with learning differences can succeed in high school and college introductory biology courses when the curriculum has been designed to respond to their learning needs.


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Portland State University (2007). Creating an online syllabus:

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Richard Felder Index of Learning Styles:

The Index of Learning Styles is an on-line instrument used to assess preferences on four dimensions

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Tech Tools for Online Courses: Beck (2009):

Ted Talks. (2010).

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