Skip Navigation and Go To Content
CHoosing And Maintaining Effective Programs for Sex Education in Schools

Glossary

|A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I| J | K | L |M|N|O|P|Q|R|S|T| U | V | W | X |Y| Z |

A


Abstinence
Refusing to engage in sexual activity including oral, anal, and vaginal intercourse until a later time (ex: until when you are married).
Abstinence Education
Teaches that abstinence from sexual activity (including oral, anal, and vaginal intercourse) is the only way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases and that waiting until marriage to have sex is the ideal for school aged students. Also known as: abstinence-only; abstinence-centered; sexual risk-avoidance programs
Abstinence-Plus Education
Teaches that abstinence from sexual activity is the best way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. Also teaches about condoms and contraception, however, emphasis is on abstinence.
Adoption
The Adoption Phase involves making evidence-based programs (EBPs) to prevent teen pregnancy a priority in the district, performing a needs and resource assessment so that the district can select an EBP that best fits the district, selecting an appropriate EBP for the district, and getting the program approved by the school board. This is the longest phase in iCHAMPSS. A district has completed this phase once an EBP has been approved by the school board.
Approve
The Approve Step involves following the district's approval process to get the selected evidence-based program (EBP) approved by the district school board. The approval process also includes presenting the SHAC recommendation regarding sexual health education to the school board for review. A district has completed this step once the school board has approved the evidence-based program and district and school staff members are made aware of the approved program.
Assess
The Assess Step consists of gathering information related to the district's teen pregnancy and birth rates, current practices related to sexual health education, sexual health education policies, and resources to implement evidence-based programs (EBPs) in the district. Gauging stakeholders' (e.g., school board members, health coordinators, parents) level of support for EBPs is also done in this step. A district has completed this step when a Needs and Resource Assessment of the district has been conducted.
Attendance Log
A tool to document the date, name, and number of students who participate in each lesson of the curriculum.

B


Baseline Survey
Board of Trustees
SEE School Board

C


Champion
This person is an advocate for getting a sexual health curriculum into the school. He/She can be involved in any part of the iCHAMPSS process.
CHAMPSS Model
The CHAMPSS Model is a realistic and practical framework for school districts that facilitates the adoption, implementation, and maintenance of evidence-based programs that prevent teen pregnancy and HIV/STIs in school-based settings.
Classroom Observation Form
This tool measures how well the teacher implemented the program as intended and the quality of program delivery.
Curriculum Log
This tool documents the number of lessons/activities completed, number of students who participated in each of the lessons, and changes made to any of the activities for each lesson during the implementation of the program.

D


Determinants
Factors associated with the health problem or risk behavior.
District Coordinator
This person is in charge of the iCHAMPSS steps of preparation, implementation, and maintenance of the program from the district level.

E


Effective Program
SEE Evidence-Based Program
Evidence-based Program (EBP)
A program or intervention that has been proven effective in changing behavior through rigorous scientific evaluations, usually randomized controlled trials. Evidence-based programs have been designed to reduce the teen pregnancy rate by reducing risky sexual behaviors (e.g. early sexual initiation, lack of condom/contraceptive use, multiple sexual partners) and increasing positive behaviors (e.g. delayed sexual initiation, increased use of condoms/contraceptive, reduced number of sexual partners). Also known as: effective programs, research-backed/research-based programs
Experimental Design
A study in which participants are randomly assigned to treatment or control groups.

F


Facts and Tips Sheets
These are brief PDF documents summarizing factual information or strategies critical to accomplishing the tasks in a step. These can be printed to serve as an easy reference or as a handout for other people.
Fidelity
In regards to program implementation, this refers to how closely the program was implemented as intended by the program developers.

G


Gatekeeper
When a parent/guardian is notified of the sexual health education curriculum and has to actively enroll their student in the program.
Green Light Adaptation
These are changes to curriculum lessons/activities that are deemed safe to make. They modify the program or curriculum activities to better fit the age, culture, and context of the target population but do not affect core program components. For more information, please see the iCHAMPSS Adapting Programs Facts & Tips Sheet.

H


Helpful Links
Website links to external sources that provide more information on a particular task or topic in iCHAMPSS.
Human Sexuality Instruction
SEE Sexual Health Education

I


Implement
The Implementation Step involves carrying out the implementation plan and implementing the selected evidence-based program (EBP) with fidelity. Monitoring the implementation of the EBP also occurs in this step. A district has completed this step when all schools that planned to implement the program complete implementation during the planned academic year.
Intentions
This refers to how likely someone is to engage in a select behavior.

J


K


L


M


Maintain
The Maintain Step consists of creating a maintenance plan to help ensure continued implementation of the program in the district. This is also an opportunity to plan and make quality improvements so that the future implementations of the program are successful. Recognizing the success of the district and teachers is also done in this step, as is reporting to key stakeholders. A district can remain in this step as long as implementation occurs each academic year and a maintenance plan is created, or revised as needed, at the end of each year.
Maintenance Plan
This tool is used to record the achievements of the program implementation as well as to plan future implementation.

N


Needs and Resource Assessment
This tool is a guide for collecting information about your school district and community that is relevant to addressing adolescent sexual health. A needs and resource assessment can help estimate the magnitude of the teen pregnancy problem in your community, identify populations most at risk and assess current resources available for program implementation, such as staff, funding, equipment, and community support.

O


Opt-In
This approach for obtaining parental consent requires parents to actively enroll their child in the sexual health education curriculum by signing a form that must be returned to the school. If the parent does not sign the form, the child does not participate in the class. Either the Opt-In or Opt-Out approach are permitted by Texas Education Code 28.004.
Opt-Out
This approach for obtaining parental consent requires parents to sign a form to remove their child from the sexual health education curriculum. If the parent does not sign the form, the child participates in the class. Either the Opt-In or Opt-Out approach are permitted by Texas Education Code 28.004.
Outcome Evaluation
This type of evaluation examines whether the program produced the expected results, or outcomes for example, changes in knowledge, attitudes, intentions and, behaviors.

P


Parent Notification Letter
This document notifies parents of the selected sexual health curriculum and includes information required by Texas Education Code 28.004.
Perceived Norms
What an individual believes are the social norms (normal/everyday behavior) among his/her peers.
Perceived Risk
How susceptible a person believes he/she is to a developing a health problem.
Phase
These refer to the three large processes in the iCHAMPSS model; adoption, implementation, and maintenance.
Post-Test
A survey given after program implementation used to measure the efficacy of the curriculum in changing attitudes, knowledge, perceived norms, and perceived risks regarding engaging in sexual activity.
Pre-Test
A survey given prior to program implementation that is used to measure the efficacy of the curriculum in changing attitudes, knowledge, perceived norms, and perceived risks regarding engaging in sexual activity. Alternative Term: baseline survey.
Prepare
The Prepare Step consists of creating a detailed plan to help ensure that implementation of the evidence-based program (EBP) is a success. The implementation plan provides an opportunity to think through critical programmatic and logistical components to make certain the EBP is implemented with fidelity, including identifying sexual health educators, attending trainings on the program, making minor modifications to the program to fit the district's needs, and obtaining parental consent, if required. A district has completed this step once an implementation plan has been created.
Prioritize
The Prioritize Step involves raising awareness about teen pregnancy and evidence-based programs (EBPs) to prevent teen pregnancy in the school district. The Prioritize process also includes: creating a School Health Advisory Council (SHAC), if needed; mobilizing an existing SHAC and other stakeholders to recognize that sexual health education is a priority; and educating SHAC members and other stakeholders about EBPs. A district has completed this step when their SHAC has created and signed a SHAC Resolution Statement.
Process Evaluation
This type of evaluation analyzes activities, outputs, and other quality control indicators to determine if the program was implemented as designed, i.e. with fidelity.
Program Evaluation
A systematic process to assess the processes, outcomes, and/or value of the implemented program by gathering and analyzing data from the program. Evaluations help inform future implementation practices and improve program quality.
Program Facilitator
An individual responsible for implementing/teaching lessons from the selected program with students. Also known as: sexual health educator; teacher.

Q


Quasi-Experimental Design
A study in which participants are assigned (not randomly) to treatment or control groups.

R


Recommendation Letter
The School Health Advisory Council (SHAC) Recommendation Letter is a formal statement communicating the official recommendation of an evidence-based sexual health education program by the SHAC to the school board. It describes the process by which the SHAC reached its decision and facilitates the role of the SHAC in vetting school health curricula.
Red Light Adaptation
These are changes to curriculum lessons/activities that should be avoided because they compromise or delete one or more core components. For more information, please see the iCHAMPSS Adapting Programs Facts & Tips Sheet.
Research Backed
SEE Evidence-Based Program
Resolution Statement
The SHAC Resolution is a formal statement of the views and wishes of your School Health Advisory Council(SHAC) about sexual health education. It recognizes teen pregnancy as a critical issue impacting students and outlines actions to be taken in support of improving sexual health education in your school district. The Resolution can be used to empower and unite SHAC members, focus resources and attention on achievable milestones, provide a rallying point for others, and publicly declare an intention to act.

S


School Board
The official policy-making body of a school district, comprised of elected trustees. Also known as: Board of Trustees
School Health Advisory Council (SHAC)
A SHAC is a group of individuals including parents, teachers, and school administrators, appointed by the school district to serve at the district level, to provide advice to the district on coordinated school health programming and its impact on student health and learning. By Texas law, a majority of the SHAC membership must be parents who are not employed by the school district. According to the Texas Education Code, Section 28.004, each school district is required to have a SHAC.
Select
The Select Step consists of identifying the district's target population, goals, and objectives for sexual health education and selecting an evidence-based program (EBP) that meets these criteria. A district has completed this step once the School Health Advisory Council (SHAC) has created a Recommendation Letter with information on the EBP for the school board.
Self Efficacy
This refers to an individual's belief in his/her ability to accomplish a goal, task, or behavior.
Sexual Health Advocate
An individual with a desire to implement EBPs in his/her district/school. Any district level or school level stakeholder can be a sexual health advocate, including staff that are not directly involved in sexual health education in their district/school.
Sexual Health Educator
SEE Program Facilitator
SMART Goals & Objectives
This mnemonic is used to develop comprehensive program goals and objectives that are:Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-bound. For more information, see Helpful Links: Writing SMART Goals.
Step
A step is a segment or part of the iCHAMPSS process of adopting, implementing, and maintaining a sexual health program in a school.
Step Overview
Short videos that describe the goals for a specific iCHAMPSS step and how to use the tools in each step.
Success Stories
Short videos from school district stakeholders discussing how they were able to overcome barriers to successfully adopt, implement, or maintain effective sexual health education in their district.
Support
Support or "Getting Others on Board" is a core component of iCHAMPSS and is needed throughout the decision-making process for adopting, implementing and maintaining an evidence-based program (EBP). This step ensures that district personnel have adequate support to carry out all iCHAMPSS steps. Getting Others on Board consists of having frequent and ongoing discussions with stakeholders, coordinating with district and school staff, and strategizing with all individuals who contribute to the success of the program. Support is achieved when district personnel feel as though they have the encouragement and resources to carry out each step in iCHAMPSS.

T


Teacher
SEE Program Facilitator
Teacher Satisfaction Survey
This tool is used to measure how much the teacher liked the program, how it affected their teaching practice and what changes/suggestions they have for future implementation.
Templates
Documents that are fully customizable to meet your districts needs and to help your district advance to the next step in iCHAMPSS.
Tool
This can be a document/handout/presentation that is used to guide the completion of tasks in iCHAMPSS steps.

U


V


W


X


Y


Yellow Light Adaptation
These are changes to curriculum lessons/activities that should be done with caution. It is highly recommended that an expert in behavior change theory and curriculum development be consulted before the change is implemented. For more information, please see the iCHAMPSS Adapting Programs Facts & Tips Sheet.
Youth Friendly Services
Youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services are those that attract young people, respond to their needs, and retain young clients for continuing care.

Z